|Photo: Male and Lalok women fishing at the beach between Male and Lalok villages. Photo: MAKATA's field officers.|
We have documented very exciting tales of how certain clan in Male village is connected to the turtles. We were fortunate enough to record on video and audio this unique story and will support this community to sustain their traditional turtle conservation efforts. To support this cause, make a small donation to MAKATA. For more information contact Wenceslaus Magun: email@example.com
What is the issue? Why save turtles?
Please see the article in The National newspaper (Friday 22, March 2013 (www.thenational.com.pg). After a leatherback turtle was killed for protein at the border of Male and Lalok villages, some villagers called for turtle conservation awareness to help change their habitual practice of killing and harvesting turtle eggs for protein to protecting and restoring turtle population. This baseline study is in response to this appeal.
Field Officers: Adolf Lilai, Simon Warr and Howard Sindana
Note: This is a follow-up report of an earlier report we posted on the baseline study for these communities.
By Howard Sindana
This report focuses on the communities of Bom-Sagar, Lalok and Male, in Rai Coast District, Madang, where MAKATA a not-for- profit NGO intends to extend its work to on Leatherback turtle conservation.
MAKATA’s current project sites are located in Karkum, Sarang, Kimadi and Magubem in north coast, Sumkar District Madang.
Like the north coast villagers, leatherback turtle is food to the local people within the three communities of Bom-Sagar, Lalok and Male since their ancestors first settled. The current generation also say it is their source of food. They say leatherback turtle has no relevance and significance to their commercial benefits. Most people in these three communities ponder on how they could get their socio-economic benefits from the Chinese owned Ramu Nickel Mine.
They admitted that they also depend entirely on their land and marine life for food, money and other forms of sustenance.
Bom Sagar, Lalok and Male are villages within the Austrolabe Bay Local Level Government of Rai Coast District in Madang Province.
The study was conducted in Male, Lalok and Bom Sagar Villages. This second visit follows the first community entry visit done in February 2014 by Simon Warr, and Adolf Lilai (Please refer to First Field Trip Report for details).
In this second trip, our team is tasked to work with the resource owners to get their consent to engage with them in delivering outcomes for the turtle conservation project. In order for that to happen the team seeks to meet the criteria’s of ‘Prior Informed Consent’ by ensuring that the communities are aware of what MAKATA plans to do and that they consent to work with MAKATA to to save the remaining population of the critically endangered leatherback turtles in ways that can also meet their socio-economic needs.
This community profile seeks to also fulfil expectations of all levels of governance including the community, provincial, regional and national level.
We are conscious of our role as partners in development to meet or fulfil the International Union for Conservation Networks (IUCN) call to save the critically endangered leatherback turtle as our primary target. Our key audience are the local communities who share the beaches these turtles come to nest.
In doing so we also bear in mind that we contribute towards fulfilling some goals in our Constitution, Vision 2050, the Millennium Development Goals, Madang Kalibobo Vision, Medium Term Development Strategy, Coral Triangle Initiative Goals, and related policies and treaties that PNG is a signatory to in order to manage and sustainably use our marine and terrestrial environment.
The following are abbreviations used by the community members during field work. Some of these include organisations which they are part of the level of developmental influence.
EBC Evangelical Brotherhood Church
LLG Local Level Government
MCC Metrical Chinese Company
WWF World Wildlife Fund
JANT Japanese Niugini Timber Ltd.
NGO Non-Government Organization
SSEC Southseas Evangelical Church
Our team was tasked to do boundary survey, complete tasks that were not completed in the first community entry process, do awareness and get the clans agree to establish their locally managed marine conservation areas as an holistic approach to saving the critically endangered leatherback turtles.
We were conscious to gain and maintain trust between each other and the community whilst gathering useful information about the community.
We were tasked to get their clan and community leaders to write a letter to MAKATA inviting MAKATA to work with them to achieve this outcome if they consent to this project.
We were also tasked to capture these activities, folklores and other relevant stories on video and still photos.
One particular story we were tasked to document is the folklore on how Bollon Seng of Male village and his clan originated from the turtle and in the event, Bollon Seng was not available, we were to identify and film someone else in his clan on his behalf.
This was going to be the conservation process but this did not work out as planned.
Due to circumstances beyond our control we stuck to collecting details of community profile and on how the villagers live and earn their living.
The information collected in the two communities we visited, were from the formal and informal meetings with the leaders and members of the communities by listening and questioning them through story telling.
What we did
This report shows information gathered on specific members of the communities such as elders including elderly men and women, councillors and young adults who are more concerned about the advantages and disadvantages of the model of development which they are not sure of and have no control over in regards to the impacts of development.
It also shows how important their land and sea resources are to them and how they are connected to their natural resources as depicted in their traditional stories.
We thank all the villagers of Male, Lalok and Bom-Sagar, particularly those members of the community who helped us perform our interviews and also to those who showed interest in welcoming us to conduct our survey.
This profile is dedicated to the communities along Astrolabe Bay. All information collected from this survey will be shared with the local communities for their own use in their development aspirations amidst the backdrop of the giant Ramu Nickle Mine operating nearby.
We thank the funder (s) who supported us to do the work along the coastline of Rai Coast in Madang.
Male village is about two hours by speed boat or is about one hour by road. It is situated south-east of Madang town in the Rai Coast District of Madang Province in Papua New Guinea.
There are three rivers without bridges to cross to get to Male, thus making situation difficult for people to move in and out of the village by road during wet season to sell their garden produced at the town market.
The people living in Male today have migrated from the inland down to the coast for better schools, health and administrative purposes during the colonial days. Two clans-Milelga and Lumugubi were the original landowners of Male. Due to cultural tolerance to allow inland people who have similar dialects and have inter-marriage over the years, the other four major clans were allowed to settle and have access to customary land of their own.
Ward: 6 Male, Rerehu & Buram
Cencius Unit: Bugazim
Local Level Government: Astrolabe Bay
District: Rai Coast
Ward Councillor: Hanz Kurab (Skurab)
Ward Recorder: John Suali
Male is a village with seven clans which is in Ward Six of Astrolabe Bay Local Level Government in Rai Coast District of Madang Province. The seven clans are:
(a) Milelga-Clan leader Bolon Seng with 356 clan members
(b) Zisimsur- with 34 clan members
(c) Guwong-Clan leader Kakru Mamba with 64 clan members
(d) Jimjam-Clan leader Kasom Bid, clan has 389 members
(e) Jumbukung has 92 members of the clan
(f) Yabang with 216 members; and
(g) Lumbukbi - Clan leader Gabura Mamani has 83 clan population figure.
Language: Wenge dialect. Gambaganga dialect
Established CBOs: Buged Theatre Group
Youth Group: Not registered
Women’s Group: Warie women group
Church Group: Lutheran, Four Square, Catholic and New Apostolate –There is conflict between denominations. There are three church buildings
Church elders: Douglas Maror-Catholic, Wendy Kouring - Four Square rep, and New Apostolate - Lalek Kalel
Hamlets: 1. Male 2. Nabu 3. Bor 4. Sinangim 5. Bangau
Main Food Crop: Taro, Banana and Yam
Main Cash Crop: Cocoa, betelnut and copra
Other source of income: Fish, garden produced
-Health-aid post: Lalok aid post and Ileg Health Centre.
Education: Male elemetry, Rerehu elementary, Jilim elementary and Male Primary
Nearest Govt station: Ileg
Access to town: sea/road K20 boat and K7 on pmv truck
Nearest Airport: Madang
Literacy Rate: Low and the problem with school fee and not everyone continue to go for further studies.
Building types: Permanent, semi- permanent and Bush material housing
Migrants in: 6 people Migrants out: 100 people
Turtle nesting beaches:
-Lumugubi- Girsilang to Tambogo beach
-Milelga- Gasilage to Dien beach
Turtle species: Leatherback, Green and Hawksbill
- March to April
-Yam planting season
-Balbal tree flowers signals nesting season
Issues of concern:
-No proper drinking water
-School fee problem
-Elementary needs funding from local MP-James Gau
-James Gau lost contact with people.
-Bolon Seng wants WWF to stay out from Turtle Conservation which he needs to talk with LLG Member regarding the subject matter.
1. Bolon Seng former LLG member. Call : 71787678
2. Steven Siang former Village Recorder. Call: 71346634
3. Tatai Headmaster Male Primary Sch. Call: 73658103
4. Wel Warek
5. Nano Boti
6. SANGIS Yangim.
Village: Bom-Sagar 28/2/2014
Census unit: Bugazim Ward: 10 Local Level Government: Astrolabe Bay
District: Rai Coast Ward Councillor: Maxnal Paima
Ward Recorder: Tom Lambert Population: 1863
Established Groups: Bom Farming Management Group
Youth Group: Sagar youth and Bosa youth
Church Group: Sagar Mama group.
Church Denomination: Lutheran, Catholic, EBC Evangelical Brotherhood Church, SSEC South Sea Evangelical Church, AOG Assembly of God and Foursquare Church.
Leaders: Andrew Mapui, Abel Loks, Dawa Keky, Jonnah Mado, Michael Gamog, Tonny Bousi.
The Church buildings are semi-permanent and bush material.
Clans and Clan leaders
· Bom clan
1. Bali-Powa Painia
2. Gasimsau- Steven Kodo
3. Bibilau Jam- Jerry Gaiyam
4. Karek- Jack Abai
5. Bom Damui- Kuya Lawai
· Sagar Clan
1. Sibinak- Krambang Akum
2. Paramata- Tonny Young
3. Rigig- Kalau Gitang
4. Sau- Benny Molok
Main food crops: Yam, taro and banana
Main cash crops: cocoa
Other source of income: Garden food crop, fish, betelnut and home grown rice.
Education government agency: Bugajim Primary school.
Health: Aid Post EBC agency
Elementry: N0-4 Elementry-Government agency & Bom elementary-Government agency.
Nearest Government station: Ileg
Health centre: Tire
Access to town: Road K5 for normal passenger and K7 for market women
Literacy rate: Low caused not identified
Migrants in: Male 9 female 4 total 13.
Migrants out: Male 5 female 9 total 14.
Government officers: Benny Lumak - Elementry Coordinator, Rai Coast, Kingsley Botty - Police Officer (CID), Waloka - Electrican PNG Power-Yonki.
Company: Benny Painia-Inter oil Branch Manager.
Turtle type found in Bom Sagar: Leatherback, Hawksbill and Green.
Nesting Beach: Jileb, Bararua, Kubal, Jajasnai, Sinai, Labia, Mangya, Yowor, Tiliyaii, Kundum
1. Ramu Nickel Mine Pipeline has caused blockage to the natural flow of the river causing the river flooding into new land area washing away gardens and land area.
2. Community corporation is breaking down as individuals are so confined to personal business
3. Poor road condition with no bridge for farmers to take their garden produce and cocoa into town.
4. Cultural activities and values breaking down due to too many denominations in one community.
-Maxwell Painia Ward 10 LLG Member
-Gaibo Kinda Sobinak clan
-Maxwell Painia Ph: 72565255
-Sakol Kubou Ph: 70551558
Village: Lalok Ward: 7 Date: 27th February 2014
Cencus unit: Bugajim
Local Level Government: Astrolabe Bay District: Rai Coast
Ward Councillor: John Wiridge
Ward Recorder: Danny Birag
Major Clans: 1. Duwai 2. Wambuk 3. Yawar 4. Yanga 5. Lumbuyakeng 6. Lalok 7. Lumbukbi
Established CBOs: Buged Theatre Group involved in awareness programs
Youth group: Anzam youth
Womens group: Anzam womens group
Church Denominations: Lutheran
Number of Church buildings: Youlu, Anzam, Shoel
Church elders: Evang Yomba, Piezi, Ambel.
Hamlets: (10) 1 Sangar (6) 5, 4, Yawananam, Wandoryai, Nopa, Nanum (Kunai camp), Rai Aga 1, Rai Aga 2, Sagel, Awong
Building types: Semi permanent and bush material.
Main Food: Yam,banana and taro.
Main cash crop: Copra ,cocoa and vanilla
Other source of income: Peanut, garden produced, trade store and fish.
Government services: Aid Post-World Vision funded
Education: Lalok elementary school-European Union funded, Male Primary and Bugazim Primary schools.
Nearest Govt Station: Ileg
Access to Town: Boat and road/truck
Cost of transport to town- K7 pmv truck and K25 speedboat
Nearest airport: Madang
Tuttle Nesting site and beach owners:
Bongau beach-Lumbukbi clan,
Sangau beach-Sangau clan
Serwa beach-Wambuk clan
Importance of turtle: Legend, it is major source of protein harvested during the planting and harvesting of yam.
Nesting Species: Leatherback, Green turtle and Hawksbill.
Nesting period: Leatherback- yam season from June to December. Green turtle and Hawksbill-anytime of the year.
Migrants in: 2 in 2011 escape from personal problems
Migrants out: 20 (Provincial Administrator Sandaun province, Principal Lutheran School of Nursing, Administrator Ileg & various government and companies.
Project: Self-help: Health officer’s house
Literacy rate: very low. There is great increase of grade 8 and grade 10. Most of them are self-sponsored to mission run institutions in Madang and PNG. The Ward Development Committee is now ready to work with LLG and other agencies.
1. MAKATA to work in Male and Bom-Sagar, and not Lalok because there are issues on land boundaries which still needs to be sorted out in Lalok. Lalok villagers are engaged with WWF through their Buged Theatre Group. This engagement is affecting the community and dividing local beach owners.
2. MAKATA has to run community empowerment training in Male before conservation process commences.
3. Male community be considered as most significant place to setup conservation as Milelga clan has a living history of Leatherback turtle connected to their current origin. They are also taking steps to conserve turtles.
3. Male and Bugazim Primary schools be included for awareness and trainings
4. Bom-Sagar youth have high motivation. They have constructed a new resource centre. MAKATA must conduct empowerment training (What kind of empowerment training? Identify their training needs) for them before it continues with conservation work.
5. MAKATA’s involvement as a local NGO will make a great difference when conservation work are well funded and accomplished. Threats to their land, rivers and marine resources by Chinese Nickel pipleline sleeps across their land, rivers, villages. These threats may be addressed by local people to claim rightful compensation when there is a damage.??Explain. What threats??
6. MAKATA may engage more teams to do awareness, conservation and training separately in one time in different locations in Rai Coast District if there are sufficient funds available. MAKATA is not just doing leatherback turtle conservation but is also addressing food security and other biodiversity conservation work.
7. MAKATA to engage the right people in the field patrol.
8. MAKATA needs to continue to capture and document the cultural values of communities. Documenting is necessary for future generation to know. At present these stories, songs and dances are passed onto younger generations through their parents who learnt those stories, songs, dances and other cultural practises from their ancestors.
9. MAKATA has to prepare in advance for request coming from other communities in Rai Coast where leatherback turtle come to nest.
10. MAKATA needs more funds before it sends out the field officers.